Bariatric Surgery

Obesitycan lead to numerous health problems like Type 2 Diabetes, Hypertension, and Obstructive Sleep Apnea. The patients might suffer from emotional distress due to low confidence and diminishing morale. Bariatric Surgery is possibly the most effective long-term medical solution for treating both morbid obesity and co-morbid conditions. There are many types of weight-loss surgery, known collectively as bariatric surgery.

Morbidly obese patients can now avail the advancement in medical technology to help them achieve significant weight loss. The surgical treatmentgives hope to patients when an adequate exercise and diet program (with or without adjunctive drug therapy) has been instituted but hasn't been successful.

Gastric Bypass

Gastric bypass is one of the most common types of bariatric surgery today.Surgeons prefer gastric bypass surgery because it generally has fewer complications than other weight-loss surgeries. The surgery can be done in two ways. With open surgery, a large surgical cut is made to open up the belly. Then a bypass is performed by working on the stomach, small intestine, and other organs.

Another way to do this surgery is to use a tiny camera, called a laparoscope. This camera is placed in your belly. The surgery is called laparoscopy.

In this surgery around 4 to 6 small tiny cuts in are made in the belly. An innovative device with a camera known as laparoscope is then passed into the body through one of these cuts. It will be connected to a video monitor in the operating room. The laparoscope enables the surgeons to watch the inside of the belly on the video monitor. This surgery takes about 2 to 4 hours.

There are few advantages of laparoscopy over open surgery include:

  • Shorter hospital stay and quicker recovery.
  • Less pain.
  • Smaller scars and a lower risk of getting a hernia or infection.

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

In Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure, a small pouch is created at the top of the stomach. The pouch is the only part of the stomach that receives food. This greatly limits the amount that the patient can comfortably eat and drink at one time.

The small intestine is then cut a short distance below the main stomach and connected to the new pouch. Food flows directly from the pouch into this part of the intestine. The main part of the stomach, however, continues to make digestive juices. The portion of the intestine still attached to the main stomach is reattached farther down. This allows the digestive juices to flow to the small intestine. Because food now bypasses a portion of the small intestine, fewer nutrients and calories are absorbed. This results in the patient having less food and eventually growing thinner.

Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding

In the adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding procedure, a band containing an inflatable balloon is placed around the upper part of the stomach and fixed in place. This creates a small stomach pouch above the band with a very narrow opening to the rest of the stomach.

A port is then placed under the skin of the abdomen. A tube connects the port to the band. By injecting or removing fluid through the port, the balloon can be inflated or deflated to adjust the size of the band. Gastric banding restricts the amount of food that the stomach can hold, so the patient can feel full sooner, but it doesn't reduce the absorption of calories and nutrients.

Sleeve gastrectomy

In a sleeve gastrectomy, part of the stomach is separated and removed from the body. The remaining section of the stomach is formed into a tube-like structure. This smaller stomach cannot hold as much food. It also produces less of the appetite-regulating hormone ghrelin, which may lessen your desire to eat. However, sleeve gastrectomy does not affect the absorption of calories and nutrients in the intestines.

Duodenal switch with biliopancreatic diversion

As with sleeve gastrectomy, this procedure begins with the surgeon removing a large part of the stomach. The valve that releases food to the small intestine is left, along with the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum.

The surgeon then closes off the middle section of the intestine and attaches the last part directly to the duodenum. This is the duodenal switch.

The separated section of the intestine isn't removed from the body. Instead, it's reattached to the end of the intestine, allowing bile and pancreatic digestive juices to flow into this part of the intestine. This is the biliopancreatic diversion.

As a result of these changes, food bypasses most of the small intestine, limiting the absorption of calories and nutrients. This, together with the smaller size of the stomach, leads to weight loss.

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